A breadboard originally was a flat wooden cutting board used to support a loaf of bread (or other foods) while it was being sliced; this original meaning is still in use, but has a new additional meaning as "a base for prototyping".
The concept of "breadboarding" as prototyping is not confined to electronic design; "mechanical breadboards" have been and continue to be used by mechanical engineers.
Because the solderless breadboard for electronics does not require soldering, it is reusable. This makes it easy to use for creating temporary prototypes and experimenting with circuit design. Older breadboard types did not have this property. A stripboard (veroboard) and similar prototyping printed circuit boards, which are used to build semi-permanent soldered prototypes or one-offs, cannot easily be reused.